1.0 Physical and Natural Environment

1.1 Location and Size

Nanumba North Municipality was upgraded to a Municipal status in March 2018 under LI 2273. It covers an area of 1,986 square kilometres. It is found in the eastern part of the Northern Region and lies between latitudes 8.5o N and 9.25o N and longitude 0.57o E and 0.5o E. it shares boundaries with five Municipals; Yendi Municipal to the north, Mion Municipal to the north west, East Gonja Municipal to the west and south-west, Nanumba South Municipal to the south and east and Zabzugu Municipals to the north-north-east. The Municipal Capital is Bimbilla.

1.2 Drainage

Numerous streams and two major rivers (the Oti and Daka) drain the Municipal. About 145km of the length of Daka lies in the Municipal and it forms the Western boundary with East Gonja Municipal. The Oti River on the other hand, meanders North- South across the eastern part of the Municipal for about 85km. Other notable rivers are the Kumar and Kumbo and their tributaries which occasionally breaks into series of pools during the long dry seasons.

These water bodies provide potentials for source of drinking water, transportation, irrigation development and fishing. The River Oti one of the major tributaries of the Volta has tourism potentials.

1.3 Biodiversity, climate change, green economy and environment in general


1.3.1 Vegetation and Soil

The Guinea Savannah vegetation with tall grass, especially elephant grass, interspersed with draught and fire resistant trees is the main vegetation type found in the Municipal. Some tree species with economic value that can be found include sheanut, dawadawa and baobab trees. 

Soil samples in the Municipal are characteristically heavy and dark coloured. According to the Soil Research Institute/Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (SRI/CSIR) classifications, soil types found in the Municipal are the savannah ochrosols, savannah glycols and ground water laterite. The savannah glycols are of alluvial-colluvial origins found along major rivers and drainage courses and are located mid-south through to the north of the Municipal. These soil samples are medium size textured and moderately well-drained soils suitable generally for a wide range of crops such as cereals, roots and tubers and legumes. 

The Savannah ochrosols, on the other hand, are well-drained soil with surface being loamy sand or sand textured material with good water retention. These soils are very useful for large –scale agriculture and they can be found beyond the River Oti in the eastern part of the Municipal and the southwest through to the Northern part of the Municipal.

The ground water laterites which are shallow sandy or loamy soils composed of rock fragments found on the summit of upland areas can also be found in the Municipal. This soil type is particularly suitable for forestry and conservation programmes.   

1.3.2 Climate

The Municipal lies entirely in the Tropical Continental climatic zone, characterized by high temperature throughout the year. Temperatures range from 29o C to 41oC. Just like any other part of West Africa, the influence of the wet south west monsoon and the dry North East trade winds. During the Harmattan, temperatures can fall as low as 16o C during the night and mornings. Annual rainfall averages 1,268mm with most of it falling within six months – April to September. This is the busiest periods for farmers in the Municipal. During this period too, streams overflow their banks and causes wide spread flooding of settlements and farmlands. This has brought some hardships to the people. The rest of the year is virtually dry and fallow period for most farmers. This is the period of wild bushfires, sometimes set usually by the youth to flush out animals from their habitat.

1.4 Population  

The projected population of Nanumba North Municipality for 2019 stands at 179,948 people (this constitutes 88,963.82 males and 88,963.82 females) based on the 2010 population and Housing Census figures of an annual growth rate of 2.7 per cent. 

The Municipal has a very young population with 66 per cent of the population falling below the age of 24 years. This structure presents tremendous amount of opportunities as well as challenge for the Municipal as this young population when given the necessary support will be able to contribute immensely towards the development of the Municipal. On the other hand, the age structure, typical of the age structure in most of the developing countries often places a lot of demands on the national and local government structure to provide services consumed by children and youth. The age structure also shows semblance of the regional pattern with the 0 – 14 years cohort constituting 47.6  per cent of the total population, while the population aged 65+comprise 4 per cent.

The economically active population (15-64 years) constitutes 48.3 per cent of the population. This situation indicates a high dependency ratio of 106.8 among the population which has serious implications for the development of the Municipal. The dependency situation in the region could even be worse considering the high incidence of unemployment and underemployment in the Municipal.

1.5 Settlement systems 

According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census the Municipal has a household population of 139,405 belonging to 16,914 households, out of which (12.1%) are heads, and this is made up of (22.0%) males and (2.5%) females. The average household size of the Municipal, according to the 2010 population and Housing Census is 7.5. Among the dominant ethnic groups, Nanumba households are fairly larger compared to konkomba households. 

The Nanumba North Municipal is predominantly rural with 71.7 per cent of the population leaving in rural areas of the Municipal, with the remaining 28.3% being urban dwellers.

The Municipal has 225 communities. Out of these only Bimbilla, with a population of 35,250 according to the 2010 population and housing census can be classified as a town. Bimbilla is the Municipal capital as well as the seat of the Paramouncy of the Nanumba Traditional Council. Nanugli is the main language spoken and most of the people are farmers, government workers, self-employed and traders. Bimbilla also provides administrative, banking, educational, marketing and health services to the periphery. 

Chamba the second largest community is about 28.8km West of Bimbilla and has a population more than 4,826 who speak mostly Likpalkpa and Nanungli. Chamba renders health, marketing and educational services to its surrounding communities.

Other larger settlements are Bincheratanga, Makayil, Nakpa Gbeini, Lepusi, Bakpaba, Pusuga, Dakpam, Sabonjida and Taali.

The settlements are quite scattered in their distribution.

1.6 Culture 

 The Municipal has a heterogeneous population in terms of ethnicity but mainly, is occupied by two major ethnic groups, the Konkonbas (60.6%) and Nanumbas (31.0%) and a few Chokosis (1.3%) and other minority tribes. Major languages spoken in the Municipalare Nanungli and Lekpakpan. (Source: 2010 Population and Housing Census draft report).

According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census 42.1% of the population in the Municipa lare traditionalists. Islam is the second dominant religion in the Municipal with a percentage of 35.1%. Christians constituted 16.8% of the population. The Population without any religion was (5.3%). Other religions constitute 0.6%. (Source: 2010 Population and Housing Census draft report).

1.7 Governance

 The Municipal Assembly has a total membership of 62, consisting of 42 elected, 18 government appointees, 1 Member of Parliarment and 1 Municipal Chief Executive. There are 42 Electoral Areas and 6 Unit Committees. The Municipal has one Town Council  and 5 Area Councils. These are Gmantambu Town Council, Darikum, Kakuhi, Kumbo, Nabanga, and Varibiegu Area Councils. All the Six Area Councils are operational.

Bimbilla is the seat of the overload of the Nanung Traditional Council. The Nanung Traditional Area cuts accross the Nanumba North Municipality and Nanumba  South  Districts and parts of the Nkwanta North District. The traditional council constitutes 10 Paramount chiefs and 32 Divisional chiefs.

1.8 Local Economic Development

1.8.1   Agriculture

 The Economic potential of the Municipal lies in its vast arable land with a huge agricultural investment potential.

Agriculture, forestry and fishing employ larger proportion of the population (79.4%), which basically makes the Municipal economy agrarian. Majority of the people employed in the agricultural sector are males relative to the female population.

The next leading sector is wholesale and retail (7.6%), which may largely be the effect of the closeness of the Municipal to the eastern border of the country, which makes it a market for secondary imported goods. Manufacturing, accommodation and food services and education also employ reasonable number of people relative to the already mentioned industries.

Out of the total land area of 173,459 hectares in the Municipal, about 130,094 hectares representing 75% are agricultural lands. However, only 46,566 hectares representing 28% is under cultivation. There is currently no area under irrigation despite the fact that two major rivers – Oti and Daka run through the Municipal. The Municipa lalso has numerous productive valleys: the Kaleogu. Sabonjida. Juo, Jua and Salnayili for commercial rice production, but all these are underutilized. Crops grown are roots and tubers, cereals, legumes and tree crops such as teak and cashew nuts. Animal rearing including poultry keeping is an integral part of every household.

1.8.2 Financial Services

Nanumba north Municipal enjoys the services of Ghana Commercial Bank and it is the only resident banking institution in the Municipal.  

The Social Enterprise Development (SEND) Foundation of West Africa facilitated the setting up of a Credit Union in the Municipal and it is currently mobilizing and supporting their registered members with credit facilities. Another credit union offering the same services is in Chamba.

Other Financial institutions such as GN Bank, Baobab Financial Service, Chamba Credit Union, Bimbilla Cooperatives, GNAT credit Union Agric Development Bank have expressed interest to start operations in the Municipal are process of establishing a branch in the Municipal.

1.9           Social Services 


1.9.1 Health Services Delivery


The Municipal has one hospital, five health centres, ten (10) functional CHPS Compounds, one Private clinic and 2 non-functional CHPS compounds the Municipal. One medical doctor delivers health services to the people of the Municipal. This puts the Doctor: Patient Ratio 1: 179,948.  There are 32 community nurses delivering health services to the various health facilities in the four health sub-districts.

1.9.2 Education Services Delivery


The Municipal has a total of 235 educational institutions at the pre-tertiary level made of 92 pre-schools (83 public). 105 Primary Schools (96 public).  33 JHS (32 public), 3 SHS (1 public) and 1 Teacher Training College.

1.9.3 Water and Sanitation


Currently Nanumba North Municipal depends on one conventional treatment plant system which services a section of Bimbilla town and Dangbenayili, 239 functioning boreholes, 3 hand-dug wells which dry up in the dry season, 20 dams/dugouts and streams.

There are 17 public toilets in the Municipal. Household latrines are mostly found in government premises and some smaller communities. Majority of the people in the Municipal practice the free range system as a method of excreta disposal. About 79.4% of the communities practice this method.

1.9.4 Road Network

The Municipal has a total road network of 601 km. This is made up of 73 kilometres of trunk roads and 292 km of engineered feeder roads, 128 kilometres of un-engineered feeder roads which are usually farm tracks and 19.31 kilometres of partially engineered roads. The trunk roads though motorable throughout the year are difficult to ply during the rainy season. The partially engineered and the non-engineered link the communities in the hinterland. However they are only motorable during the dry season.


About half of the communities in the Municipality are not connected to the national grid. The current access to electricity can impact negatively on investment particularly those into agro processing sub sector. The use of gas for cooking is also very low with no LPG service point in the Municipal.

1.9.6 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) 


The Municipal enjoys the services of Vodafone Ghana Ltd which provide fix line services as well as cellular, MTN and Airtel TiGO.




A summary of key development problems/issues/gaps identified from the situation analysis.


  • Bimbilla chieftaincy conflict
  • Food insecurity (Seasonal variability in food supply and prices)  Under utilization of agricultural lands.
  • Over reliance on rain fed agriculture.
  • Low income of farmers.
  • Inadequate tractor services
  • Low technical know-how of farmers
  • Uncontrolled use and disposal of agro-chemicals  Inadequate extension services delivery  Limited access to veterinary services.
  • Bushfires, Deforestation, Water Pollution, Land degradation
  • Poor compliance of forestry regulations
  • Inadequate forestry staff
  • High cost of agricultural inputs and machinery
  • Loans delinquency and defaults
  • Poor Sanitation
  • Inadequate portable water supply
  • Improper disposal of solid and liquid waste
  • Inadequate household latrines
  • High water table in some communities
  • Apathy of some community members towards the CLTS concept
  • Low levels of teacher commitment
  • High Teacher Absenteesm / ‘Presenteesm’
  • Poor BECE Performance
  • Low Pupil-Teacher Ratio
  • Inadequate school infrastructure at all levels
  • Inadequate sanitary facilities in schools
  • Low enrolment in basic schools
  • Poor performance of girls in schools
  • High maternal and infant mortality
  • Inadequate health personnel
  • High rate of malnutrition
  • Delay in NHIS reimbursement
  • Non-functional radiology unit (Bimbilla Hospitality)
  • Low patronage of ART by PLWHA
  • High stigmatisation and discrimination of PLWHIV/AIDS
  • Poor ambulance services
  • Poor quality of healthcare services
  • Low rate of iodated salt consumption
  • Youth unemployment
  • Violence against women, children, aged and PWDs
  • Increasing crime rate
  • Low Internally Generated Funds
  • Poor conditions of road infrastructure
  • Inadequate promotion of domestic tourism
  • Inadequate infrastructure such as roads
  • Irregular inflow or delay in the release of the Municipal Assembly’s Common Fund (DACF)
  • Poor accessibility of some public infrastructure to PLWDs
  • Haphazard physical developments
  • Inadequate human resource capacity
  • Low representation of women in decision making.
  • Inadequate personnel, logistics/resources for Disaster prevention and management
  • Inadequate staff accommodation
  • Unmet needs of mental services